Accuracies of a point-based and an intensity-based fluoroscopic methods of assessing patella tracking were determined by comparing the pattern of patellar motion with respect to orientation (flexion, internal rotation, and lateral tilt) and translation (lateral, proximal, and anterior) with the pattern of patellar motion measured using Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis in three cadaver knee specimens. Each pose in the patellar motion could be obtained from single as well as multiple calibrated fluoroscopic images. The errors using the intensity-based method were slightly higher than those of the point-based method, but they appear to be sufficiently low to detect clinically significant differences in patellar kinematics.
Tang, T. S., MacIntyre, N. J., Gill, H. S., Fellows, R. A., Hill, N. A., Wilson, D. R., & Ellis, R. E. (2004). Accurate assessment of patellar tracking using fiducial and intensity-based fluoroscopic techniques. Medical Image Analysis, 8(3), 343-351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2004.06.011