3 Citations (SciVal)


The tomographic imaging method is promising in large-area touch-sensing applications. This paper presents a new type of such touch sensor using ultrasonic tomography (UST) via sound attenuation imaging. UST is gaining popularity as a portable, fast, and inexpensive imaging system for medical and industrial applications. UST can be developed in different operation modes. A transmission mode UST is being investigated as a force- and touch-sensitive skin. A prototype skin sensor was developed in a 200 mm diameter circular UST array containing two sets of 16 transducers, with one operating at a central frequency of 40 kHz and the other at 300 kHz. The extension of the sensor in terms of dimension, up to 400 mm diameter, and number of sensors, up to 32 transducers, is possible where eight points of contact were reconstructed successfully. The medium contains a 20 mm high water region, and a soft silicone membrane covers the liquid region. When touchpoints or forces are applied to the soft skin of the membrane, the sound pathway is disrupted, resulting in an image of the touch position and touch force intensity using a tomographic UST algorithm. Several static and dynamic experiments are conducted to demonstrate this novel application of UST. In addition, a correlation analysis is carried out to establish the force quantification potential for the UST-based tactile skin.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6071
Number of pages14
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding: This research received no external funding.

Data Availability Statement: Data can be provided upon the request to the authors.


  • artificial skin
  • soft skin
  • touch sensing
  • ultrasound tomography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Instrumentation
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Biochemistry


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