A Systematic Review of Gender Dysphoria Measures in Autistic Samples

Karl Mears, Dheeraj Rai, Punit Shah, Kate Cooper, Chris Ashwin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This systematic review investigated how studies have measured gender dysphoria (GD) in autistic samples and the impact of using different measures on study results. The literature search identified 339 relevant papers, with 12 of them meeting the inclusion criteria. Results showed that seven different measures of GD characteristics have been used with autistic samples and that the studies consistently reported a greater number of GD characteristics and a greater severity of GD in autistic compared to non-autistic samples. Methodological common practices were found in recruiting participants from clinical settings rather than the general population, having more autistic males than females in the samples, for studies being conducted in Europe, North America, and Oceania, and using single-item measures of GD for samples of autistic children. Issues were identified with study designs and measures of GD, suggesting a need for a more standardized multi-item self-report measure of GD for use in clinical and non-clinical samples across different ages and cultures.

Original languageEnglish
JournalArchives of Sexual Behavior
Early online date3 Jun 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 3 Jun 2024

Data Availability Statement

Document of data collation and emerging themes is available upon request.


  • Autism
  • Gender dysphoria
  • Gender incongruence
  • Systematic review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • General Psychology

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