OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical factors associated with cancer risk in the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) and to systematically review the existing evidence related to cancer screening.
METHODS: A systematic literature search was carried out on Medline, Embase and Scopus. Cancer risk within the IIM population (i.e. not compared to the general population) was expressed as risk ratios (RR) for binary variables and weighted mean differences (WMD) for continuous variables. Evidence relating to cancer screening practices in the IIMs were synthesised via narrative review.
RESULTS: Sixty nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. Dermatomyositis subtype (RR 2.21), older age (WMD 11.19), male gender (RR 1.53), dysphagia (RR 2.09), cutaneous ulceration (RR 2.73), and anti-transcriptional intermediary factor-1 gamma positivity (RR 4.66) were identified as being associated with significantly increased risk of cancer. Polymyositis (RR 0.49) and clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (RR 0.44) subtypes, Raynaud's phenomenon (RR 0.61), interstitial lung disease (RR 0.49), very high serum creatine kinase (WMD -1189.96) or lactate dehydrogenase (WMD -336.52) levels, and anti-Jo1 (RR 0.45) or anti-EJ (RR 0.17) positivity were identified as being associated with significantly reduced risk of cancer. Nine studies relating to IIM-specific cancer screening were included. Computed tomography (CT) scanning of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis appeared to be effective in identifying underlying asymptomatic cancers.
DISCUSSION: Cancer risk factors should be evaluated in patients with IIM for risk stratification. Screening evidence is limited but CT scanning could be useful. Prospective studies and consensus guidelines are needed to establish cancer screening strategies in IIM patients.