A simulated patient study assessing over the counter supply and counseling in Jordan: responding to headache complaints

Eman A. Hammad, Eman Elayeh, Razan Tubeileh, Margaret Watson, Mayyada Wazaify

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (SciVal)


Background Community pharmacists are the most accessible health professionals for patients seeking advice on minor ailments and over the counter supply. Objectives To assess the management of patients seeking advice for headache in community pharmacies in Jordan. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted using simulated patient in three cities in Jordan. A trained simulated patient enacted an advice-seeking scenario for the treatment of a headache. The visits were evaluated using pre-defined criteria relating to content and communication skills. Results Of 72 community pharmacies invited, 50 (69.4%) agreed to participate. Of these, 38 (76%) pharmacies were visited. The median duration of the visit was 2 min (20 s–4 min). All visits resulted in selling a drug. Paracetamol combinations often with caffeine were recommended in over 50% of visits. Drug sale recommendations were often made without obtaining essential information about symptoms or patient medical history. Only brand names and doses were often highlighted to the simulated patient. No written information was offered. Conclusion Community pharmacies in Jordan appear not to offer adequate counseling for patients seeking advice for headache. Both counseling and communication skills are suboptimal. Exploration of factors and reasons of suboptimal practice is recommended.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)982-986
Number of pages5
JournalInternational Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Issue number5
Early online date2 Jul 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2018


  • Community pharmacy service
  • Counseling
  • Headache
  • Jordan
  • Simulated patients

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacy
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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