A review of water injection applied on the internal combustion engine

Sipeng Zhu, Bo Hu, Sam Akehurst, Colin Copeland, Andrew Lewis, Hao Yuan, Ian Kennedy, Johan Bernards, Ciaran Branney

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

As a promising technique to reduce the in-cylinder temperature and exhaust temperature, mitigate combustion knock, improve combustion phasing and decrease NOx emissions, water injection applied on different types of engines has attracted extensive attention in recent years to further improve fuel economy and fulfill stricter emission regulations. Since mechanisms of water injection with different aims are distinct, benefits on engine performances and emissions are also varied. This paper intends to give a comprehensive review of water injection applied on the internal combustion engine. First, different implementations of water injection are introduced, followed by a detailed description of water evaporation processes. Second, mechanisms of the in-cylinder combustion process with water addition are discussed with respect to the heat release rate, knock tendency and emission formations. Next, recent works of water injection applied on different kinds of engines are reviewed with special attentions given to the comparisons of different implementations and injection parameters. Furthermore, comparisons and combinations of water injection with other advanced engine techniques are summarized. Finally, critical issues of current research on the water injection technique are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)139-158
Number of pages20
JournalEnergy Conversion and Management
Volume184
Early online date1 Feb 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2019

Fingerprint

Water injection
Internal combustion engines
Engines
Engine cylinders
Combustion knock
Fuel economy
Water
Evaporation
Temperature

Keywords

  • Fuel efficiency
  • Internal combustion engine
  • Knock
  • NO emissions
  • Water injection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology

Cite this

A review of water injection applied on the internal combustion engine. / Zhu, Sipeng; Hu, Bo; Akehurst, Sam; Copeland, Colin; Lewis, Andrew; Yuan, Hao; Kennedy, Ian; Bernards, Johan; Branney, Ciaran.

In: Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 184, 15.03.2019, p. 139-158.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

@article{42a18f0b0ce1440698476969b6a28516,
title = "A review of water injection applied on the internal combustion engine",
abstract = "As a promising technique to reduce the in-cylinder temperature and exhaust temperature, mitigate combustion knock, improve combustion phasing and decrease NOx emissions, water injection applied on different types of engines has attracted extensive attention in recent years to further improve fuel economy and fulfill stricter emission regulations. Since mechanisms of water injection with different aims are distinct, benefits on engine performances and emissions are also varied. This paper intends to give a comprehensive review of water injection applied on the internal combustion engine. First, different implementations of water injection are introduced, followed by a detailed description of water evaporation processes. Second, mechanisms of the in-cylinder combustion process with water addition are discussed with respect to the heat release rate, knock tendency and emission formations. Next, recent works of water injection applied on different kinds of engines are reviewed with special attentions given to the comparisons of different implementations and injection parameters. Furthermore, comparisons and combinations of water injection with other advanced engine techniques are summarized. Finally, critical issues of current research on the water injection technique are discussed.",
keywords = "Fuel efficiency, Internal combustion engine, Knock, NO emissions, Water injection",
author = "Sipeng Zhu and Bo Hu and Sam Akehurst and Colin Copeland and Andrew Lewis and Hao Yuan and Ian Kennedy and Johan Bernards and Ciaran Branney",
year = "2019",
month = "3",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.enconman.2019.01.042",
language = "English",
volume = "184",
pages = "139--158",
journal = "Journal of Energy Conversion and Management",
issn = "0196-8904",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A review of water injection applied on the internal combustion engine

AU - Zhu, Sipeng

AU - Hu, Bo

AU - Akehurst, Sam

AU - Copeland, Colin

AU - Lewis, Andrew

AU - Yuan, Hao

AU - Kennedy, Ian

AU - Bernards, Johan

AU - Branney, Ciaran

PY - 2019/3/15

Y1 - 2019/3/15

N2 - As a promising technique to reduce the in-cylinder temperature and exhaust temperature, mitigate combustion knock, improve combustion phasing and decrease NOx emissions, water injection applied on different types of engines has attracted extensive attention in recent years to further improve fuel economy and fulfill stricter emission regulations. Since mechanisms of water injection with different aims are distinct, benefits on engine performances and emissions are also varied. This paper intends to give a comprehensive review of water injection applied on the internal combustion engine. First, different implementations of water injection are introduced, followed by a detailed description of water evaporation processes. Second, mechanisms of the in-cylinder combustion process with water addition are discussed with respect to the heat release rate, knock tendency and emission formations. Next, recent works of water injection applied on different kinds of engines are reviewed with special attentions given to the comparisons of different implementations and injection parameters. Furthermore, comparisons and combinations of water injection with other advanced engine techniques are summarized. Finally, critical issues of current research on the water injection technique are discussed.

AB - As a promising technique to reduce the in-cylinder temperature and exhaust temperature, mitigate combustion knock, improve combustion phasing and decrease NOx emissions, water injection applied on different types of engines has attracted extensive attention in recent years to further improve fuel economy and fulfill stricter emission regulations. Since mechanisms of water injection with different aims are distinct, benefits on engine performances and emissions are also varied. This paper intends to give a comprehensive review of water injection applied on the internal combustion engine. First, different implementations of water injection are introduced, followed by a detailed description of water evaporation processes. Second, mechanisms of the in-cylinder combustion process with water addition are discussed with respect to the heat release rate, knock tendency and emission formations. Next, recent works of water injection applied on different kinds of engines are reviewed with special attentions given to the comparisons of different implementations and injection parameters. Furthermore, comparisons and combinations of water injection with other advanced engine techniques are summarized. Finally, critical issues of current research on the water injection technique are discussed.

KW - Fuel efficiency

KW - Internal combustion engine

KW - Knock

KW - NO emissions

KW - Water injection

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85060863496&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.enconman.2019.01.042

DO - 10.1016/j.enconman.2019.01.042

M3 - Review article

VL - 184

SP - 139

EP - 158

JO - Journal of Energy Conversion and Management

JF - Journal of Energy Conversion and Management

SN - 0196-8904

ER -