This article discusses a number of modern techniques used for the analysis of works of art. The most widely used approaches as well as lesser known ones are outlined in terms of their applications and the kind of information on the condition of artworks that can be extracted. Special attention is paid to the method of thermographic analysis of works of pictorial art. The principles of the technique, various computational approaches, and safety concerns are discussed. A set of examples is provided for the demonstration of the capabilities of thermographic assessment, including a range of real canvas and panel paintings exhibited in museums and in private collections.