We perform a rare-event study on a simulated power system in which grid-scale batteries provide both regulation and emergency frequency control ancillary services. Using a model of random power disturbances at each bus, we employ the skipping sampler, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm for rare-event sampling, to build conditional distributions of the power disturbances leading to two kinds of instability: frequency excursions outside the normal operating band, and load shedding. Potential saturation in the benefits, and competition between the two services, are explored as the battery maximum power output increases.
|Journal||Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences|
|Early online date||7 Jun 2021|
|Publication status||Published - 26 Jul 2021|