A novel numerical implementation of electrochemical-thermal battery model for electrified powertrains with conserved spherical diffusion and high efficiency

Hao Yuan, Sipeng Zhu, Sam Akehurst, Liye Wang, Lifang Wang

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Abstract

The performance of batteries in electrified powertrain systems is highly influenced by mass diffusion and electrochemistry which are often ignored in the simulation of these systems due to the lack of a conserved, efficient, and integrable battery model. Therefore, this work numerically implements an electrochemical-thermal battery model with conserved numerical schemes and efficient numerical methods which include Jacobian-based and Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov (JFNK) solvers. The performance of the developed model is evaluated by simulating measurements of a LiFePO 4 battery under constant discharge rates and Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), as well as by a detailed comparison with existing battery models. The comparison highlights two features of our model: (a) negligible mass imbalances in the spherical diffusion modelling, which are five orders of magnitude smaller than those from a recent battery model in the literature; (b) efficient modelling of real-world driving cycles with the computational time two orders of magnitude shorter than that of the literature model. These advanced features indicate that our model can be applied in both fundamental electrochemical-thermal studies of lithium-ion battery and detailed simulations of electrified powertrains as an accurate and efficient sub-model.

Original languageEnglish
Article number121614
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
Volume178
Early online date10 Jul 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was completed during the COVID-19 lockdown and the authors would like to acknowledge the UK government’s furlough scheme. This study was supported in part by the National Key Research and Development Program of China under Grant 2017YFB0102102 and the National Science Foundation program of China under Grant 52077208.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd

Keywords

  • Conserved spherical diffusion
  • Electrochemical-thermal model
  • Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov method
  • Jacobian-based method
  • Lithium-ion battery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes

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