IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine capable of suppressing a number of proinflammatory signals associated with intestinal inflammatory diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Clinical use of human IL-10 (hIL-10) has been limited by anemia and thrombocytopenia following systemic injection, side effects that might be eliminated by a gut-restricted distribution. We have identified a transcytosis pathway used by cholix, an exotoxin secreted by nonpandemic forms of the intestinal pathogen Vibrio cholerae. A nontoxic fragment of the first 386 aa of cholix was genetically fused to hIL-10 to produce recombinant AMT-101. In vitro and in vivo characterization of AMT-101 showed it to efficiently cross healthy human intestinal epithelium (SMI-100) by a vesicular transcytosis process, activate hIL-10 receptors in an engineered U2OS osteosarcoma cell line, and increase cellular phospho-STAT3 levels in J774.2 mouse macrophage cells. AMT-101 was taken up by inflamed intestinal mucosa and activated pSTAT3 in the lamina propria with limited systemic distribution. AMT-101 administered to healthy mice by oral gavage or to cynomolgus monkeys (nonhuman primates) by colonic spray increased circulating levels of IL-1R antagonist (IL-1Ra). Oral gavage of AMT-101 in two mouse models of induced colitis prevented associated pathological events and plasma cytokine changes. Overall, these studies suggest that AMT-101 can efficiently overcome the epithelial barrier to focus biologically active IL-10 to the intestinal lamina propria.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy