A new empirical equation for predicting the maximum initial amplitude of submarine landslide-generated waves

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9 Citations (SciVal)


The accurate prediction of landslide tsunami amplitudes has been a challenging task given large uncertainties associated with landslide parameters and often the lack of enough information of geological and rheological characteristics. In this context, physical modelling and empirical equations have been instrumental in developing landslide tsunami science and engineering. This study is focused on developing a new empirical equation for estimating the maximum initial landslide tsunami amplitude for solid-block submarine mass movements. We are motivated by the fact that the predictions made by existing equations were divided by a few orders of magnitude (10−1–104 m). Here, we restrict ourselves to three main landslide parameters while deriving the new predictive equation: initial submergence depth, landslide volume and slope angle. Both laboratory and field data are used to derive the new empirical equation. As existing laboratory data was not comprehensive, we conduct laboratory experiments to produce new data. By applying the genetic algorithm approach and considering non-dimensional parameters, we develop and examine 14 empirical equations for the non-dimensional form of the maximum initial tsunami amplitude. The normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) index between observations and calculations is used to choose the best equation. Our proposed empirical equation successfully reproduces both laboratory and field data. This equation can be used to provide a preliminary and rapid estimate of the potential hazards associated with submarine landslides using limited landslide parameters.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)491-503
Number of pages13
Issue number2
Early online date2 Nov 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2 Nov 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
MH is funded by the Royal Society, UK, grant number CHL\R1\180173.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).


  • Experimental fluid mechanics
  • Hydraulic engineering
  • Landslide
  • Landslide-generated waves
  • Tsunami

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology


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