In this paper, a novel Multilayer Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Extreme Learning Machine (ML-IT2-FELM) for the recognition of walking activities and Gait events is presented. The ML-IT2-FELM uses a hierarchical learning scheme that consists of multiple layers of IT2 Fuzzy Autoencoders (FAEs), followed by a final classification layer based on an IT2-FELM architecture. The core building block in the ML-IT2-FELM is an IT2-FELM, which is a generalised model of the Interval Type-2 Radial Basis Function Neural Network (IT2-RBFNN) and that is functionally equivalent to a class of simplified IT2 Fuzzy Logic Systems (FLSs). Each FAE in the ML-IT2-FELM employs an output layer with a direct-defuzzification process based on the Nie-Tan algorithm, while the IT2-FELM classifier includes a Karnik-Mendel type-reduction method (KM). Real data was collected using three inertial measurements units attached to the thigh, shank and foot of twelve healthy participants. The validation of the ML-IT2-FELM method is performed with two different experiments. The first experiment involves the recognition of three different walking activities: Level-Ground Walking (LGW), Ramp Ascent (RA) and Ramp Descent (RD). The second experiment consists of the recognition of stance and swing phases during the gait cycle. In addition, to compare the efficiency of the ML-IT2-FELM with other ML fuzzy methodologies, a kernel-based ML-IT2-FELM that is inspired by kernel learning and called KML-IT2-FELM is also implemented. The results from the recognition of walking activities and gait events achieved an average accuracy of 99.98% and 99.84% with a decision time of 290.4ms and 105ms, respectively, by the ML-IT2-FELM, while the KML-IT2-FELM achieved an average accuracy of 99.98% and 99.93% with a decision time of 191.9ms and 94ms. The experiments demonstrate that the ML-IT2-FELM is not only an effective Fuzzy Logic-based approach in the presence of sensor noise, but also a fast extreme learning machine for the recognition of different walking activities.
Solis, A. R., Panoutsos, G., Beltran-Perez, C., & Martinez Hernandez, U. (2020). A Multilayer Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Extreme Learning Machine for the Recognition of Walking Activities and Gait Events using Wearable Sensors. Neurocomputing. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neucom.2019.11.105