The mixed-method study presented in this paper investigates the changes in direct and indirect intercultural contact and language-learning attitudes and effort of international students in the United Kingdom. Seventy international learners of English were asked to fill in a questionnaire three times during one academic year in an international foundation program. An additional 10 students and two of their English language tutors were interviewed at the end of their study period. We analysed variations in language-learning motivation as well as in the frequency and type of contact the learners experienced at three distinct points of time during the international study programme. The results indicate that whereas written and media contact increased in frequency during the academic year, the participants engaged in less frequent spoken contact at the end of the period investigated. The qualitative and quantitative data show that contact experiences, socio-environmental factors and learner internal variables have a dynamic impact on each other and they together can play an important role in the language-learning experiences of international students.
|Journal||Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development|
|Early online date||25 Oct 2013|
|Publication status||Published - 2014|
- culture shock
- language attitudes
- instrumental motivation