A Lumped Parameter Thermal Model for Single Sided AFPM Machines with Experimental Validation

Richard Burke, Artur Giedymin, Zhongze Wu, Hawwooi Chuan, Nick Bourne, Gary Hawley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (SciVal)
102 Downloads (Pure)


Axial flux permanent magnet (AFPM) machines are promising for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) due to the compactness, high torque density and high efficiency. However, poor thermal characterization leads to an over-sizing of these machines which ultimately compromises overall system efficiency. In this paper, the transient thermal behaviour of all the components in the single sided AFPM machine are characterized in an accurate but computationally efficient lumped parameter thermal model (LPTM). For the first time, contact measurements on the rotor have been used in AFPM machines to demonstrate the ability of the model to predict all component temperatures to within 4 °C for steady state. The mean temperature error over a load step transient was less than 5°C with a maximum error less than 13.5 °C which was for the winding. The model has a running time of approximately 1000 times faster than real time on a desktop machine and is suitable for integration into system simulation tools and predictive control strategies to avoid over-sizing of the motor and improve the usage of the electric machine in dynamic duty cycles.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1065-1083
Number of pages19
JournalIEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification
Issue number3
Early online date28 May 2020
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sept 2020


  • Axial flux permanent magnet machine
  • DC current test
  • Rotors
  • Stator windings
  • Thermal conductivity
  • Thermal expansion
  • Thermal resistance
  • Windings
  • finite element analysis
  • lumped parameter thermal model
  • thermal capacity
  • thermal resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Transportation
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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