A Galaxy-Scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole

Grant R. Tremblay, Françoise Combes, J. B. Raymond Oonk, Helen R. Russell, Michael A. McDonald, Massimo Gaspari, Bernd Husemann, Paul E. J. Nulsen, Brian R. McNamara, Stephen L. Hamer, Christopher P. O'Dea, Stefi A. Baum, Timothy A. Davis, Megan Donahue, G. Mark Voit, Alastair C. Edge, Elizabeth L. Blanton, Malcolm N. Bremer, Esra Bulbul, Tracy E. ClarkeLaurence P. David, Louise O. V. Edwards, Dominic A. Eggerman, Andrew C. Fabian, William R. Forman, Christine Jones, Nathaniel Kerman, Ralph P. Kraft, Yuan Li, Meredith C. Powell, Scott W. Randall, Philippe Salomé, Aurora Simionescu, Yuanyuan Su, Ming Sun, C. Megan Urry, Adrian N. Vantyghem, Belinda J. Wilkes, John A. ZuHone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)
8 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer observations of the brightest cluster galaxy in Abell 2597, a nearby (z = 0.0821) cool core cluster of galaxies. The data map the kinematics of a three billion solar mass filamentary nebula that spans the innermost 30 kpc of the galaxy's core. Its warm ionized and cold molecular components are both cospatial and comoving, consistent with the hypothesis that the optical nebula traces the warm envelopes of many cold molecular clouds that drift in the velocity field of the hot X-ray atmosphere. The clouds are not in dynamical equilibrium, and instead show evidence for inflow toward the central supermassive black hole, outflow along the jets it launches, and uplift by the buoyant hot bubbles those jets inflate. The entire scenario is therefore consistent with a galaxy-spanning "fountain," wherein cold gas clouds drain into the black hole accretion reservoir, powering jets and bubbles that uplift a cooling plume of low-entropy multiphase gas, which may stimulate additional cooling and accretion as part of a self-regulating feedback loop. All velocities are below the escape speed from the galaxy, and so these clouds should rain back toward the galaxy center from which they came, keeping the fountain long lived. The data are consistent with major predictions of chaotic cold accretion, precipitation, and stimulated feedback models, and may trace processes fundamental to galaxy evolution at effectively all mass scales.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13
Pages (from-to)1-24
Number of pages24
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume865
Issue number1
Early online date1 Aug 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 Sep 2018

Keywords

  • astro-ph.GA
  • galaxies: clusters: general
  • galaxies: star formation
  • galaxies: clusters: individual (Abell 2597)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Tremblay, G. R., Combes, F., Oonk, J. B. R., Russell, H. R., McDonald, M. A., Gaspari, M., ... ZuHone, J. A. (2018). A Galaxy-Scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole. Astrophysical Journal, 865(1), 1-24. [13]. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aad6dd

A Galaxy-Scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole. / Tremblay, Grant R.; Combes, Françoise; Oonk, J. B. Raymond; Russell, Helen R.; McDonald, Michael A.; Gaspari, Massimo; Husemann, Bernd; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; McNamara, Brian R.; Hamer, Stephen L.; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Davis, Timothy A.; Donahue, Megan; Voit, G. Mark; Edge, Alastair C.; Blanton, Elizabeth L.; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Bulbul, Esra; Clarke, Tracy E.; David, Laurence P.; Edwards, Louise O. V.; Eggerman, Dominic A.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Kerman, Nathaniel; Kraft, Ralph P.; Li, Yuan; Powell, Meredith C.; Randall, Scott W.; Salomé, Philippe; Simionescu, Aurora; Su, Yuanyuan; Sun, Ming; Urry, C. Megan; Vantyghem, Adrian N.; Wilkes, Belinda J.; ZuHone, John A.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 865, No. 1, 13, 17.09.2018, p. 1-24.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tremblay, GR, Combes, F, Oonk, JBR, Russell, HR, McDonald, MA, Gaspari, M, Husemann, B, Nulsen, PEJ, McNamara, BR, Hamer, SL, O'Dea, CP, Baum, SA, Davis, TA, Donahue, M, Voit, GM, Edge, AC, Blanton, EL, Bremer, MN, Bulbul, E, Clarke, TE, David, LP, Edwards, LOV, Eggerman, DA, Fabian, AC, Forman, WR, Jones, C, Kerman, N, Kraft, RP, Li, Y, Powell, MC, Randall, SW, Salomé, P, Simionescu, A, Su, Y, Sun, M, Urry, CM, Vantyghem, AN, Wilkes, BJ & ZuHone, JA 2018, 'A Galaxy-Scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 865, no. 1, 13, pp. 1-24. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aad6dd
Tremblay GR, Combes F, Oonk JBR, Russell HR, McDonald MA, Gaspari M et al. A Galaxy-Scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole. Astrophysical Journal. 2018 Sep 17;865(1):1-24. 13. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aad6dd
Tremblay, Grant R. ; Combes, Françoise ; Oonk, J. B. Raymond ; Russell, Helen R. ; McDonald, Michael A. ; Gaspari, Massimo ; Husemann, Bernd ; Nulsen, Paul E. J. ; McNamara, Brian R. ; Hamer, Stephen L. ; O'Dea, Christopher P. ; Baum, Stefi A. ; Davis, Timothy A. ; Donahue, Megan ; Voit, G. Mark ; Edge, Alastair C. ; Blanton, Elizabeth L. ; Bremer, Malcolm N. ; Bulbul, Esra ; Clarke, Tracy E. ; David, Laurence P. ; Edwards, Louise O. V. ; Eggerman, Dominic A. ; Fabian, Andrew C. ; Forman, William R. ; Jones, Christine ; Kerman, Nathaniel ; Kraft, Ralph P. ; Li, Yuan ; Powell, Meredith C. ; Randall, Scott W. ; Salomé, Philippe ; Simionescu, Aurora ; Su, Yuanyuan ; Sun, Ming ; Urry, C. Megan ; Vantyghem, Adrian N. ; Wilkes, Belinda J. ; ZuHone, John A. / A Galaxy-Scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2018 ; Vol. 865, No. 1. pp. 1-24.
@article{cd9dbc7dbd4e4897982eb419fa0e42fa,
title = "A Galaxy-Scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole",
abstract = "We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer observations of the brightest cluster galaxy in Abell 2597, a nearby (z = 0.0821) cool core cluster of galaxies. The data map the kinematics of a three billion solar mass filamentary nebula that spans the innermost 30 kpc of the galaxy's core. Its warm ionized and cold molecular components are both cospatial and comoving, consistent with the hypothesis that the optical nebula traces the warm envelopes of many cold molecular clouds that drift in the velocity field of the hot X-ray atmosphere. The clouds are not in dynamical equilibrium, and instead show evidence for inflow toward the central supermassive black hole, outflow along the jets it launches, and uplift by the buoyant hot bubbles those jets inflate. The entire scenario is therefore consistent with a galaxy-spanning {"}fountain,{"} wherein cold gas clouds drain into the black hole accretion reservoir, powering jets and bubbles that uplift a cooling plume of low-entropy multiphase gas, which may stimulate additional cooling and accretion as part of a self-regulating feedback loop. All velocities are below the escape speed from the galaxy, and so these clouds should rain back toward the galaxy center from which they came, keeping the fountain long lived. The data are consistent with major predictions of chaotic cold accretion, precipitation, and stimulated feedback models, and may trace processes fundamental to galaxy evolution at effectively all mass scales.",
keywords = "astro-ph.GA, galaxies: clusters: general, galaxies: star formation, galaxies: clusters: individual (Abell 2597)",
author = "Tremblay, {Grant R.} and Fran{\cc}oise Combes and Oonk, {J. B. Raymond} and Russell, {Helen R.} and McDonald, {Michael A.} and Massimo Gaspari and Bernd Husemann and Nulsen, {Paul E. J.} and McNamara, {Brian R.} and Hamer, {Stephen L.} and O'Dea, {Christopher P.} and Baum, {Stefi A.} and Davis, {Timothy A.} and Megan Donahue and Voit, {G. Mark} and Edge, {Alastair C.} and Blanton, {Elizabeth L.} and Bremer, {Malcolm N.} and Esra Bulbul and Clarke, {Tracy E.} and David, {Laurence P.} and Edwards, {Louise O. V.} and Eggerman, {Dominic A.} and Fabian, {Andrew C.} and Forman, {William R.} and Christine Jones and Nathaniel Kerman and Kraft, {Ralph P.} and Yuan Li and Powell, {Meredith C.} and Randall, {Scott W.} and Philippe Salom{\'e} and Aurora Simionescu and Yuanyuan Su and Ming Sun and Urry, {C. Megan} and Vantyghem, {Adrian N.} and Wilkes, {Belinda J.} and ZuHone, {John A.}",
note = "31 pages, 19 figures. Accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal",
year = "2018",
month = "9",
day = "17",
doi = "10.3847/1538-4357/aad6dd",
language = "English",
volume = "865",
pages = "1--24",
journal = "Astrophysical Journal",
issn = "0004-637X",
publisher = "IOP Publishing",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A Galaxy-Scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole

AU - Tremblay, Grant R.

AU - Combes, Françoise

AU - Oonk, J. B. Raymond

AU - Russell, Helen R.

AU - McDonald, Michael A.

AU - Gaspari, Massimo

AU - Husemann, Bernd

AU - Nulsen, Paul E. J.

AU - McNamara, Brian R.

AU - Hamer, Stephen L.

AU - O'Dea, Christopher P.

AU - Baum, Stefi A.

AU - Davis, Timothy A.

AU - Donahue, Megan

AU - Voit, G. Mark

AU - Edge, Alastair C.

AU - Blanton, Elizabeth L.

AU - Bremer, Malcolm N.

AU - Bulbul, Esra

AU - Clarke, Tracy E.

AU - David, Laurence P.

AU - Edwards, Louise O. V.

AU - Eggerman, Dominic A.

AU - Fabian, Andrew C.

AU - Forman, William R.

AU - Jones, Christine

AU - Kerman, Nathaniel

AU - Kraft, Ralph P.

AU - Li, Yuan

AU - Powell, Meredith C.

AU - Randall, Scott W.

AU - Salomé, Philippe

AU - Simionescu, Aurora

AU - Su, Yuanyuan

AU - Sun, Ming

AU - Urry, C. Megan

AU - Vantyghem, Adrian N.

AU - Wilkes, Belinda J.

AU - ZuHone, John A.

N1 - 31 pages, 19 figures. Accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal

PY - 2018/9/17

Y1 - 2018/9/17

N2 - We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer observations of the brightest cluster galaxy in Abell 2597, a nearby (z = 0.0821) cool core cluster of galaxies. The data map the kinematics of a three billion solar mass filamentary nebula that spans the innermost 30 kpc of the galaxy's core. Its warm ionized and cold molecular components are both cospatial and comoving, consistent with the hypothesis that the optical nebula traces the warm envelopes of many cold molecular clouds that drift in the velocity field of the hot X-ray atmosphere. The clouds are not in dynamical equilibrium, and instead show evidence for inflow toward the central supermassive black hole, outflow along the jets it launches, and uplift by the buoyant hot bubbles those jets inflate. The entire scenario is therefore consistent with a galaxy-spanning "fountain," wherein cold gas clouds drain into the black hole accretion reservoir, powering jets and bubbles that uplift a cooling plume of low-entropy multiphase gas, which may stimulate additional cooling and accretion as part of a self-regulating feedback loop. All velocities are below the escape speed from the galaxy, and so these clouds should rain back toward the galaxy center from which they came, keeping the fountain long lived. The data are consistent with major predictions of chaotic cold accretion, precipitation, and stimulated feedback models, and may trace processes fundamental to galaxy evolution at effectively all mass scales.

AB - We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer observations of the brightest cluster galaxy in Abell 2597, a nearby (z = 0.0821) cool core cluster of galaxies. The data map the kinematics of a three billion solar mass filamentary nebula that spans the innermost 30 kpc of the galaxy's core. Its warm ionized and cold molecular components are both cospatial and comoving, consistent with the hypothesis that the optical nebula traces the warm envelopes of many cold molecular clouds that drift in the velocity field of the hot X-ray atmosphere. The clouds are not in dynamical equilibrium, and instead show evidence for inflow toward the central supermassive black hole, outflow along the jets it launches, and uplift by the buoyant hot bubbles those jets inflate. The entire scenario is therefore consistent with a galaxy-spanning "fountain," wherein cold gas clouds drain into the black hole accretion reservoir, powering jets and bubbles that uplift a cooling plume of low-entropy multiphase gas, which may stimulate additional cooling and accretion as part of a self-regulating feedback loop. All velocities are below the escape speed from the galaxy, and so these clouds should rain back toward the galaxy center from which they came, keeping the fountain long lived. The data are consistent with major predictions of chaotic cold accretion, precipitation, and stimulated feedback models, and may trace processes fundamental to galaxy evolution at effectively all mass scales.

KW - astro-ph.GA

KW - galaxies: clusters: general

KW - galaxies: star formation

KW - galaxies: clusters: individual (Abell 2597)

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85053872166&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3847/1538-4357/aad6dd

DO - 10.3847/1538-4357/aad6dd

M3 - Article

VL - 865

SP - 1

EP - 24

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 1

M1 - 13

ER -