A Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Investigation of the Relationship Between Stigma and Job Effectiveness Among Employees With HIV

Anna Carmella G. Ocampo, Yueyang Chen, Simon Restubog, Lu Wang, Anthony Decoste

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (SciVal)


Growing diversity in the workforce has compelled scholars and managers to create inclusive organizational environments for employees who belong to marginalized groups. Yet, little is known about how employees with stigmatized medical conditions manage their job demands. In this article, we examine the role of stigma associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in shaping the ability of employees with HIV to contribute to their organizations. Drawing on stigma and emotions literatures, we investigate the influence of HIV stigma on job effectiveness (i.e., in-role performance and organizational citizenship behaviors) through the mediated paths of fear and shame. We further examine whether a psychological (i.e., core self-evaluation [CSE]) and a physiological (i.e., CD4 cell count, defined as the biological indicator of HIV severity) factor would moderate these mediating relationships at the first and second stages, respectively. Using a sample of 225 employees with HIV surveyed across three measurement periods with a time lag of 3 months, we found support for the dual-stage moderated mediation model linking HIV stigma and job effectiveness via shame under lower (vs. higher) levels of CSE and CD4 cell count. By contrast, we did not find evidence for the mediating role of fear. Implications of our findings for theory and practice are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)889-904
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Applied Psychology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 13 Oct 2022


The authors are grateful to the research and administrative support of Joe-Marck Bauzon, Ronivin Pagtakhan, and Katerina Leyritana. The authors are indebted to their participants and the larger HIV/AIDS community in the Philippines whose experiences honed these ideas over the years.


  • fear
  • HIV
  • marginalized and vulnerable populations
  • shame
  • stigma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology

Cite this