The first part of this article intends to give an applicable framework for the evaluation of endurance capacity as well as for the derivation of exercise prescription by the use of two gas exchange thresholds: aerobic (AerTGE) and anaerobic (AnTGE). AerT GE corresponds to the first increase in blood lactate during incremental exercise whereas AnTGE approximates the maximal lactate steady state. With very few constraints, they are valid in competitive athletes, sedentary subjects, and patients. In the second part of the paper, the practical application of gas exchange thresholds in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies is described, thereby further validating the 2-threshold model. It is shown that AerTGE and AnTGE can reliably distinguish between different states of endurance capacity and that they can well detect training-induced changes. Factors influencing their relationship to the maximal oxygen uptake are discussed. Finally, some approaches of using gas exchange thresholds for exercise prescription in athletes, healthy subjects, and chronically diseased patients are addressed.