A blast from the infant Universe: The very high- z GRB 210905A

A. Rossi, D. D. Frederiks, D. A. Kann, M. De Pasquale, E. Pian, G. Lamb, P. D'Avanzo, L. Izzo, A. J. Levan, D. B. Malesani, A. Melandri, A. Nicuesa Guelbenzu, S. Schulze, R. Strausbaugh, N. R. Tanvir, L. Amati, S. Campana, A. Cucchiara, G. Ghirlanda, M. Della ValleS. Klose, R. Salvaterra, R. L.C. Starling, G. Stratta, A. E. Tsvetkova, S. D. Vergani, A. D'Aì, D. Burgarella, S. Covino, V. D'Elia, A. De Ugarte Postigo, H. Fausey, J. P.U. Fynbo, F. Frontera, C. Guidorzi, K. E. Heintz, N. Masetti, E. Maiorano, C. G. Mundell, S. R. Oates, M. J. Page, E. Palazzi, J. Palmerio, G. Pugliese, A. Rau, A. Saccardi, B. Sbarufatti, D. S. Svinkin, G. Tagliaferri, A. J. Van Der Horst, D. J. Watson, M. V. Ulanov, K. Wiersema, D. Xu, J. Zhang

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Abstract

We present a detailed follow-up of the very energetic GRB 210905A at a high redshift of z=6.312 and its luminous X-ray and optical afterglow. Following the detection by Swift and Konus-Wind, we obtained a photometric and spectroscopic follow-up in the optical and near-infrared (NIR), covering both the prompt and afterglow emission from a few minutes up to 20 Ms after burst. With an isotropic gamma-ray energy release of Eiso = 1.270.19+0.20- 1054 erg, GRB 210905A lies in the top 7% of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the Konus-Wind catalogue in terms of energy released. Its afterglow is among the most luminous ever observed, and, in particular, it is one of the most luminous in the optical at t0.5 d in the rest frame. The afterglow starts with a shallow evolution that can be explained by energy injection, and it is followed by a steeper decay, while the spectral energy distribution is in agreement with slow cooling in a constant-density environment within the standard fireball theory. A jet break at 46.2 16.3 d (6.3±2.2 d rest-frame) has been observed in the X-ray light curve; however, it is hidden in the H band due to a constant contribution from the host galaxy and potentially from a foreground intervening galaxy. In particular, the host galaxy is only the fourth GRB host at z>6 known to date. By assuming a number density n=1 cm3 and an efficiency η=0.2, we derived a half-opening angle of 8.4±1.0, which is the highest ever measured for a z6 burst, but within the range covered by closer events. The resulting collimation-corrected gamma-ray energy release of 1- 1052 erg is also among the highest ever measured. The moderately large half-opening angle argues against recent claims of an inverse dependence of the half-opening angle on the redshift. The total jet energy is likely too large to be sustained by a standard magnetar, and it suggests that the central engine of this burst was a newly formed black hole. Despite the outstanding energetics and luminosity of both GRB 210905A and its afterglow, we demonstrate that they are consistent within 2 with those of less distant bursts, indicating that the powering mechanisms and progenitors do not evolve significantly with redshift.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA125
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume665
Early online date21 Sept 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sept 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We acknowledge useful discussion with L. Nicastro and A. MacFadyen. A. Rossi acknowledges support from the INAF project Premiale Supporto Arizona & Italia. D.D.F. and A.E.T. acknowledge support from RSF grant 21-12-00250. D.A.K. acknowledges support from Spanish National Research Project RTI2018-098104-J-I00 (GRBPhot). A.R., E.Pal., P.D.A., L.A., E.Pi., G.S., S.C., V.D.E., M.D.V., and A.M. acknowledge support from PRIN-MIUR 2017 (grant 20179ZF5KS). P.D.A., A.M. acknowledge support from the Italian Space Agency, contract ASI/INAF n. I/004/11/5. L.I. was supported by grants from VILLUM FONDEN (project number 16599 and 25501). D.B.M. and A.J.L. acknowledge the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Seventh Framework programme (FP7-2007-2013) (grant agreement No. 725246). The Cosmic Dawn Center (DAWN) is funded by the Danish National Research Foundation under grant No. 140. K.E.H. acknowledges support by a Postdoctoral Fellowship Grant (217690–051) from The Icelandic Research Fund. C.G.M. acknowledges financial support from Hiroko and Jim Sherwin. Part of the funding for GROND (both hardware as well as personnel) was generously granted from the Leibniz-Prize to Prof. G. Hasinger (DFG grant HA 1850/28-1). This work made use of data supplied by the UK Swift Science Data Centre at the University of Leicester

Funding Information:
We thank the anonymous referee for providing thoughtful comments. We acknowledge useful discussion with L. Nicastro and A. MacFadyen. A. Rossi acknowledges support from the INAF project Premiale Supporto Arizona & Italia. D.D.F. and A.E.T. acknowledge support from RSF grant 21-12-00250. D.A.K. acknowledges support from Spanish National Research Project RTI2018-098104-J-I00 (GRBPhot). A.R., E.Pal., P.D.A., L.A., E.Pi., G.S., S.C., V.D.E., M.D.V., and A.M. acknowledge support from PRIN-MIUR 2017 (grant 20179ZF5KS). P.D.A., A.M. acknowledge support from the Italian Space Agency, contract ASI/INAF n. I/004/11/5. L.I. was supported by grants from VILLUM FONDEN (project number 16599 and 25501). D.B.M. and A.J.L. acknowledge the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Seventh Framework programme (FP7-2007-2013) (grant agreement No. 725246). The Cosmic Dawn Center (DAWN) is funded by the Danish National Research Foundation under grant No. 140. K.E.H. acknowledges support by a Postdoctoral Fellowship Grant (217690–051) from The Icelandic Research Fund. C.G.M. acknowledges financial support from Hiroko and Jim Sherwin. Part of the funding for GROND (both hardware as well as personnel) was generously granted from the Leibniz-Prize to Prof. G. Hasinger (DFG grant HA 1850/28-1). This work made use of data supplied by the UK Swift Science Data Centre at the University of Leicester.

Keywords

  • Gamma-ray burst: general
  • Gamma-ray burst: individual: GRB 210905A

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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