A Bilevel Formalism for the Peer-Reviewing Problem

Gennaro Auricchio, Ruixiao Zhang, Jie Zhang, Xiaohao Cai

Research output: Chapter or section in a book/report/conference proceedingChapter in a published conference proceeding


Due to the large number of submissions that more and more conferences experience, finding an automatized way to well distribute the submitted papers among reviewers has become necessary. We model the peer-reviewing matching problem as a bilevel programming (BP) formulation. Our model consists of a lower-level problem describing the reviewers' perspective and an upper-level problem describing the editors'. Every reviewer is interested in minimizing their overall effort, while the editors are interested in finding an allocation that maximizes the quality of the reviews and follows the reviewers' preferences the most. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed model is the first one that formulates the peer-reviewing matching problem by considering two objective functions, one to describe the reviewers' viewpoint and the other to describe the editors' viewpoint. We demonstrate that both the upper-level and lower-level problems are feasible and that our BP model admits a solution under mild assumptions. After studying the properties of the solutions, we propose a heuristic to solve our model and compare its performance with the relevant state-of-the-art methods. Extensive numerical results show that our approach can find fairer solutions with competitive quality and less effort from the reviewers.(Our code website: https://github.com/Galaxy-ZRX/Bilevel-Review.)

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationECAI 2023 - 26th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, including 12th Conference on Prestigious Applications of Intelligent Systems, PAIS 2023 - Proceedings
EditorsKobi Gal, Kobi Gal, Ann Nowe, Grzegorz J. Nalepa, Roy Fairstein, Roxana Radulescu
PublisherIOS Press BV
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9781643684369
Publication statusPublished - 28 Sept 2023
Event26th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, ECAI 2023 - Krakow, Poland
Duration: 30 Sept 20234 Oct 2023

Publication series

NameFrontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications
ISSN (Print)0922-6389


Conference26th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, ECAI 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This project is partially supported by a Leverhulme Trust Research Project Grant (2021–2024). Jie Zhang is also supported by the EP-SRC grant (EP/W014912/1).

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence

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