AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation by AICAR. (5-andno-imidazole carboxamide riboside) is correlated with increased glucose transport in rodent skeletal muscle via an insulin-independent pathway. We determined in vitro effects of insulin and/or AICAR exposure on glucose transport and cell-surface GLUT4 content in skeletal muscle from nondiabetic men and men with type 2 diabetes. AICAR increased glucose transport in a dose-dependent manner in healthy subjects. Insulin and AICAR increased glucose transport and cell-surface GLUT4 content to a similar extent in control subjects. In contrast, insulin- and AICAR-stimulated responses on glucose transport and cell-surface GLUT4 content were impaired in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Importantly, exposure of type 2 diabetic skeletal muscle to a combination of insulin and AICAR increased glucose transport and cell-surface GLUT4 content to levels achieved in control subjects. AICAR increased AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation to a similar extent in skeletal muscle from subjects with type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic subjects. Our studies highlight the potential importance of AMPK-dependent pathways in the regulation of GLUT4 and glucose transport activity,in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle. Activation of AMPK is an attractive strategy to enhance glucose transport through increased cell surface GLUT4 content in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle.
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|Published - 2003