4D sequential actuation: combining ionoprinting and redox chemistry in hydrogels

Anna B. Baker, Duncan F. Wass, Richard S. Trask

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (SciVal)


The programmable sequential actuation of two-dimensional hydrogel membranes into three-dimensional folded architectures has been achieved by combining ionoprinting and redox chemistry; this methodology permits the programmed evolution of complex architectures triggered through localized out-of-plane deformations. In our study we describe a soft actuator which utilizes ionoprinting of iron and vanadium, with the selective reduction of iron through a mild reducing agent, to achieve chemically controlled sequential folding. Through the optimization of solvent polarity and ionoprinting variables (voltage, duration and anode composition), we have shown how the actuation pathways, rate-of-movement and magnitude of angular rotation can be controlled for the design of a 4D sequential actuator.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10LT02
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalSmart Materials and Structures
Issue number10
Early online date16 Sept 2016
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2016


  • actuators
  • hydrogels
  • ionoprinting
  • selective redox
  • sequential actuation


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