3D pedestrian localization using multiple cameras: a generalizable approach

João Paulo Lima, Rafael Roberto, Lucas Figueiredo, Francisco Simões, Diego Thomas, Hideaki Uchiyama, Veronica Teichrieb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (SciVal)


Pedestrian detection is a critical problem in many areas, such as smart cities, surveillance, monitoring, autonomous driving, and robotics. AI-based methods have made tremendous progress in the field in the last few years, but good performance is limited to data that match the training datasets. We present a multi-camera 3D pedestrian detection method that does not need to be trained using data from the target scene. The core idea of our approach consists in formulating consistency in multiple views as a graph clique cover problem. We estimate pedestrian ground location on the image plane using a novel method based on human body poses and person’s bounding boxes from an off-the-shelf monocular detector. We then project these locations onto the ground plane and fuse them with a new formulation of a clique cover problem from graph theory. We propose a new vertex ordering strategy to define fusion priority based on both detection distance and vertex degree. We also propose an optional step for exploiting pedestrian appearance during fusion by using a domain-generalizable person re-identification model. Finally, we compute the final 3D ground coordinates of each detected pedestrian with a method based on keypoint triangulation. We evaluated the proposed approach on the challenging WILDTRACK and MultiviewX datasets. Our proposed method significantly outperformed state of the art in terms of generalizability. It obtained a MODA that was approximately 15% and 2% better than the best existing generalizable detection technique on WILDTRACK and MultiviewX, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Article number61
JournalMachine Vision and Applications
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 8 Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) (process 425401/2018-9) for partially funding this research.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


  • 3D location
  • Generalizable
  • Multi-camera
  • Pedestrian detection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Computer Science Applications


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