3D-M3: high-spatial-resolution spectroscopy with extreme AO and 3D-printed micro-lenslets

Theodoros Anagnos, Mareike Trappen, Blaise C. Kuo Tiong, Tobias Feger, Stephanos Yerolatsitis, Robert J. Harris, Julien Lozi, Nemanja Jovanovic, Tim A. Birks, Sébastien Vievard, Olivier Guyon, Itandehui Gris-Sánchez, Sergio G. Leon-Saval, Barnaby Norris, Sebastiaan Y. Haffert, Phillip Hottinger, Matthias Blaicher, Yilin Xu, Christopher H. Betters, Christian KoosDavid W. Coutts, Christian Schwab, Andreas Quirrenbach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (SciVal)


By combining integral field spectroscopy with extreme adaptive optics, we are now able to resolve objects close to the diffraction limit of large telescopes, exploring new science cases. We introduce an integral field unit designed to couple light with a minimal plate scale from the SCExAO facility at NIR wavelengths to a single-mode spectrograph. The integral field unit has a 3D-printed micro-lens array on top of a custom single-mode multi-core fiber, to optimize the coupling of light into the fiber cores. We demonstrate the potential of the instrument via initial results from the first on-sky runs at the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope with a spectrograph using off-the-shelf optics, allowing for rapid development with low cost.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)D108-D121
Number of pages13
JournalApplied Optics
Issue number19
Early online date23 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgment. T.A. is a fellow of the International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg (IMPRS-HD) and is supported by the Cotutelle International Macquarie University Research Excellence Scholarship. M.T., M.B., Y.X., and C.K. are supported by Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF), joint project PRIMA, the Helmholtz International Research School for Teratronics (HIRST), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) under Germany’s Excellence Strategy via the Excellence Cluster 3D Matter Made to Order. R.J.H., P.H., and A.Q. are supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), “Novel Astronomical Instrumentation through photonic Reformatting.” T.B. and S.Y. are supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020, and by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. S.Y.H. is supported by the NASA Hubble Fellowship awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated. The development of SCExAO was supported by the JSPS, the Astrobiology Center (ABC) of the National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Japan, the Mt Cuba Foundation, and the directors contingency fund at Subaru Telescope, and the OptoFab node of the Australian National Fabrication Facility. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. This research made use of Astropy, a community-developed core Python package for Astronomy [75,76], Numpy [77], and Matplotlib [78].

Funding Information:
Funding. Macquarie University; Horizon 2020 Framework Programme (730890); Science and Technology Facilities Council (ST/N000544/1); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (23103002, 23340051, 26220704); Space Telescope Science Institute (HST-HF2-51436.001-A); Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (13N14630); Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (326946494, EXC2082/1-390761711); Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated (NAS5-26555).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Optical Society of America

Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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