Structure-function Studies on Human Angiotensin-l Concervting Enzyme (Human ACE)

Project: Research council

Description

Angiotensin-I converting enzyme [ACE, which contains two domains (N and C)] inhibitors are widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases, including high blood pressure, heart failure, coronary artery disease, fibrosis and kidney failure. However, current-generation ACE inhibitors, which were developed in the 1970's and 1980's, are hampered by common side effects. The N- and C-domains of ACE display different substrate specificities. While there are many ACE inhibitors on the market that block both domains, there are no drugs that selectively inhibit the N-domain and thereby accrue the advantages of reducing fibrosis and inflammation in the heart, kidney and lung, without the concomitant side effects induced by blockade of the C-domain. This underscores the importance of the determination of the 3D structure of ACE and the design of 2nd generation ACE-inhibitor complex/s that are safer and more effective. Our success in the determination of the crystal structure of human testis ACE (equivalent to the C-domain of somatic ACE) and the N-domain of somatic ACE (Angiotensin-I converting enzyme [ACE, which contains two domains (N and C)] inhibitors are widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases, including high blood pressure, heart failure, coronary artery disease, fibrosis and kidney failure. However, current-generation ACE inhibitors, which were developed in the 1970's and 1980's, are hampered by common side effects. The N- and C-domains of ACE display different substrate specificities. While there are many ACE inhibitors on the market that block both domains, there are no drugs that selectively inhibit the N-domain and thereby accrue the advantages of reducing fibrosis and inflammation in the heart, kidney and lung, without the concomitant side effects induced by blockade of the C-domain. This underscores the importance of the determination of the 3D structure of ACE and the design of 2nd generation ACE-inhibitor complex/s that are safer and more effective. Our success in the determination of the crystal structure of human testis ACE (equivalent to the C domain of somatic ACE) and the N-domain of somatic ACE (with various clinically important inhibitors as well as novel domain selective inhibitors) using X-ray crystallography have provided the platform for true structure-based design of better ACE inhibitors. This is a significant breakthrough in terms of the structural biology of the protease and, more importantly, the mechanism of ACE inhibition. This paves the way for a more rigorous approach exploiting the differences between the domains through a structure based drug design approach of novel domain-selective inhibitors. Thus the sustained effort on ACE has provided a firm platform for our group for the new studies. Our proposed experiments that builds on a body of previous and current work are directed at structural study of the full-length somatic ACE and crystal structures of complexes of ACE with domain selective inhibitors combining basic and translational research on an important medical problem. In the longer term, the application seeks to exploit detailed structural knowledge for the synthesis of new ACE inhibitors with the aim of providing better drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in particular hypertension and fibrosis. A key feature will be the design of compounds that are specific for the N- or C-terminal domain of ACE with the expectation that this will provide selective compounds for therapy with fewer side effects.
StatusActive
Effective start/end date1/02/1631/01/20

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Angiotensins
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Enzymes
Crystal structure
Blood pressure
Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A
Pharmaceutical Preparations
X ray crystallography
Substrates
Medical problems
Peptide Hydrolases