funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)
The project focuses on an unexplored trend in the organization and governance of science: the occurrence and increase in multiple affiliations, i.e. researchers' attachment to more than one institution. In a pilot study based on data from publications in scientific journals, we observe that such multiple affiliations have become more widespread among academic staff. In Germany, for instance, 19% of authors on academic papers reported more than one affiliation in 2013, up from 9% in 2008. However, empirical evidence so far is mainly anecdotal. The proposed research project will be the first to investigate systematically the causes and consequences of multiple affiliations based on publication and survey data in different fields (biology, chemistry, engineering and business/economics) and countries (Germany, UK and Japan). Recent developments in the governance of academic research may have spurred this increase in multiple affiliations. These include reforms that led to greater autonomy of institutions and to a focus on rankings and assessment. Consequently, universities across the globe aim to attract the most prolific researchers to improve their performance. Moreover, increasing resource requirements may lead scientists to seek access to additional resources outside their home institution. In addition, individual motivations such as direct financial benefits, reputation considerations, practical employment market considerations, or intrinsic scientific motives could play a role. To investigate trends, motivations, and the effects on research outcomes, we will conduct a survey among researchers in Germany, the UK, and Japan. This survey complements bibliometric indicators and allows us to gain new insights on multiple affiliations in academia. We explore inter-institutional, inter-sectorial and international affiliations, and focus on researchers' motivations for engaging in multiple affiliations as well as the mechanisms employed by institutions to encourage or discourage multiple affiliations. We investigate how motivations and stimuli depend on institutional and researcher characteristics, country and scientific field. Moreover, we analyze the relationship between multiple affiliations and research performance. In particular, we hypothesize that multiple affiliations driven by individual motives (e.g. access to larger networks, additional resources, and/or greater visibility) impact research performance differently from those driven by institutional motives. Finally, comparing three major knowledge economies, we can draw conclusions on the role of the governance background for institutional affiliations of academic researchers.