Project Details


Emissions data suggests that 30-50% of all carbon emissions arise from activities in the built environment. The global population is expected to reach 9bn by 2050, with 67% living in urban areas. Meeting strict emissions reductions targets (in the UK - an 80% reduction by 2050) and facilitating global low-carbon design is therefore a major challenge for structural engineering. Concrete is the world's most widely used man-made material. The manufacture of cement accounts for a large proportion of global raw material expenditure and at least 5% of global CO2 emissions. Recent research has made it possible to cast geometrically complex concrete structures, capitalising on a key advantage of this fluid material. These developments allow new architectural expression, and the new geometries allow us to save considerable amounts of material through design optimisation. This new potential is being held back by current methods for reinforcing concrete. Although the steel rods that we use can be bent into standardised shapes, any further complexity adds considerable cost to the construction process. With the goal of achieving low carbon concrete design, two major challenges exist: 1) to reinforce structures with complex geometries and 2) to provide durable and resilient structures. Meeting both challenges would allow us to capitalise on the fluidity of concrete to meet long-term emissions reductions targets. This will require a completely new approach to design and construction of concrete structures. This proposal will completely replace internal steel reinforcement with a knitted composite reinforcement cage made from carbon fibre tows. By fabricating this reinforcement in exactly the right geometry, we will provide exactly the right strength exactly where it is needed. This will be transformative for concrete construction, and will greatly simplify the reinforcing of more efficient concrete structures to help the UK meet its ambitious targets for emissions reductions.
Effective start/end date30/03/1529/06/17


  • Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

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  • Research Output

    • 1 Conference contribution
    • 1 Paper
    • 1 Article

    Bend-strength of novel filament wound shear reinforcement

    Spadea, S., Orr, J. & Ivanova, K., 15 Sep 2017, In : Composite Structures. 176, p. 244-253

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Open Access
  • 13 Citations (Scopus)
    177 Downloads (Pure)

    Innovative construction using flexible moulds

    Orr, J., Spadea, S. & Miranda, H., 22 Jun 2016.

    Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

    Open Access
  • 42 Downloads (Pure)

    New frontiers for the use of FRP reinforcement in geometrically complex concrete structures

    Spadea, S., Orr, J. & Nanni, A., Dec 2016, 8th International Conference on Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites in Civil Engineering (CICE), 2016. Teng, J-G. & Dai, J-G. (eds.). Hong Kong, China : Hong Kong Polytechnic University

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    Open Access
  • 2 Citations (Scopus)
    84 Downloads (Pure)


    Dataset for "Wound Fibre Reinforced Polymer shear reinforcement for non-prismatic concrete beams"

    Yang, Y. (Creator) & Orr, J. (Supervisor), University of Bath, 31 Aug 2018



    Orr, J. (Creator), Spadea, S. (Researcher), Spadea, S. (Researcher), Nanni, A. (Researcher) & Yang, Y. (Researcher), University of Bath, 2016