This proposed programme of research builds on an existing strong partnership between the Universities of Birmingham and Bath, which bridges the interdisciplinary boundary between oral sciences and chemistry. The bacterial biofilm is a persistent factor in causing and prolonging infection in the mouth. We will target its removal through a new generation of dental instruments that will use cavitation to disrupt the biofilm. This work has direct relevance to patient treatment and the commercial development of new instrumentation. New clinical devices will be designed using the specialised technology developed from our research, to successfully overcome the challenges of removing deposits from teeth whether outside (the tooth root surface or implant surfaces) or inside (the root canal). Furthermore there is good potential for further commercial translation of the research findings from this project, illustrated by our relationship with Dentsply USA who contracted Professor Walmsley to deliver fact finding research and publications on their range of instruments. Therefore our research output will be of interest to manufactures of such instruments. Hence, we believe that the predictors for success for this proposal are high. Disruption of bacterial biofilms on teeth will provide a tremendous clinical advantage in periodontal and endodontic treatment, leading to a new range of instruments, which can be extended to cleaning hard to reach places. The results have a potential translational application to non-dental applications where the removal of and prevention of regrowth of the biofilm is paramount to success.