This study assessed molecular responses of human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) to 6 weeks of morning fasting. Forty-nine healthy lean (n = 29) and obese (n = 20) adults provided SCAT biopsies before and after 6 weeks of morning fasting (FAST; 0 kcal until 12.00 h) or daily breakfast consumption (BFAST; ≥700 kcal before 11.00 h). Biopsies were analysed for mRNA levels of selected genes, and GLUT4 and Akt protein content. This dataset includes individual participant data for the following outcome measures: Adipose tissue mRNA expression of genes involved in insulin signalling, AMPK signalling, circadian rhythms, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, inflammation/cytokine signalling, and mitochondrial signalling; adipose tissue protein content of GLUT4, Akt1 and Akt2, basal and insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, insulin-stimualted adipose tissue glucose uptake. This trial was registered as ISRCTN31521726.